Introduction

Objectives — Introduce to the reader

How this thesis will work

1 — The structure of the work and how the research has been done, and why has it been done in this way, what are the influences on this work, what has for example come before — previous thesis, journal papers — is this work building on top of anything and why is this subject important and what gaps will it explore.

The Chapters

1 — Introduction to Generation Z and the world of Digital Natives

Who are Generation Z — a draft of this has been written, will update.

What do we mean by a digital native, is this just a Generation Z trait — well it can be argued not, especially after 2 years of lockdowns — work and life has increasingly gone more online — Generation Z as a mindset (digital first) — we can all act like Generation Z and be a digital native — Consumer Choice? Give examples in the literature?

2 — What do we mean by XR?

Exactly that — talk about the evolution of this old / new industry which is about harnessing the immersive experience, what is XR (combination of VR, AR, Web3, Video Game technology, Immersive Arts field), how did it start, milestones, important research and what is XR in 2022. — Literature review..

Describe XR as a cultural disrupter and evidence this, this will give weight to it altering how Gen Z consume stuff — i.e music.

An easy example is how smart phone mobile technology, gives 24/7 almost free (phone / wifi required) to an endless digital space — web 2.0 — XR devices allow this connectivity for the ‘hardcore user’ to immerse themselves in this space XR is the bridge to this — but what is on the other side of this bridge, in my opinion for the past 6 years its been a hotchpot of different games, platforms and experiences — but now the industry is maturing — this can be evidence with the ‘metaverse’ being bannered about — so we are seeing a consolidation of the industry — Facebook rebrand, Microsoft buying activation, Epic Games and Tennent etc — but

The issue with XR is, that it was to be everything for everyone — it needs to understand its market how ever big or small and develop the tools for this space… which is why platforms like VRchat, coupled with an Oculus 2 headset is a fringe player — but actually getting more right than the major players.

3 — A brief overview of the Music Industry as a commercial business

We need to know what XR is disrupting and why this could be? we need the reader to know you know your shit about the music industry, so here we talk about the music industry — the business of selling music — 10,000 words.

its really important to note that from the get go, from the Edisson phonograph that the people who invented the technology to enable humans to listen to recorded music, they also became the gate keepers, from patents on cylinders to play recorded chamber music created by Edisson, to happy mistakes which enabled recorded music to become independent — the flat disks which make viynl records have an important history (as soon as we have the disk, music becomes sharable)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Carl_Goldmark ) the disks are patent / copyright free due to expiry in 1919, the basic patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records had expired — and so experiments could begin (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonograph_record#History ),

opening the field for countless companies to produce them. and therefore anyone can make them, the control system here, is that its costs alot to make them and also only a few places can make them, so the market is then controlled by a new set of gate keepers, those that have money and also the means to manufacture recorded music — the record companies — they sell recordings on a format that can be consumed — this is how we got record labels and the markets they sell in, once we have markets, we have people that become companies which are tasked with marketing and promotion of the goods the records or the services, the musicians who play live gigs — once all this is in place, we have a music industry and not a cottage industry — this is why monopolies stifle innovation, as in a monopoly you get what you are given because one player controls the market, and they do not need to innovate, in a competitive system, where monopoly does not exists, companies must innovate to get market share, and to retain customers — so the patent expiry of the disk record, that changed everything — and we see this cycle repeated in the music industry.

Giant leaps in the music are coupled with technological innovation, but the acceleration of this, is when friction is removed — The patent for cylinder shaped music product was taken, then people started in innovate with a patent free alternative — each new idea building on the last — the vinyl record, cheaper and patent free? —

Other milestones to back up the patent free innovation argument. Cassettes, Napster, YouTube — Pop goes to Video Games.

Television killed the radio star, Phillips created the cassette and said that anyone could manufacture it — cassettes became the cheapest medium to record music on to and created indie music industries, 80s USA hip hop being a major benificaciary of cassettes being patent free — the rationale behind Phillip's idea.. they would sell more units that PLAY cassettes if there where more cassettes.

MTV dominated music television, and record companies would spend millions on music videos, as the best music videos would get more air time , more air time the bigger the artist (music videos as global events, sponsored by pepsi etc)— which is why 80s was the era of music video image conscious music idols — the likes of Madonna, Michael Jackson etc — the iconic idol images are as memorable as the music, now compare that to 2022 — who are the idols (stars are turned into video game characters), image is important, but social media following is even more important, but to get that following you need to be active on the technological platforms —

Radio was the dominant form of advertising of music since the 50s — as it plays singles (rock and roll, rise of the teenager) this medium is unchallenged until the arrival of cable (new technology — from 4 stations to 100s) and hello MTV (Video killed the radio star) — Now we have 24/7 access to not only the product of music videos to sell singles and Albums — but we have talk shows, documentary and other promotional film mediums all promoting music artists — we also see the rise of reality tv spin offs, as MTV and its spinoffs need more content, cheap content — which also will benefit the record companies — a duality relationship is born.

A decade of MTV dominance comes to an end, when the internet arrives (1995) —but its broadband in 2000 that this technology starts to breaks up monopoly dominance of broadcaster (MTV) and Record Company — Youtube has free music videos (est 2005), and channels are dedicated to niches, MTV tries to replicate this, but it costs too much, they are up against a kid in a bedroom, doing it for free — advertises also shift marketing money into the internet, meaning MTV have to do more, for less budget — spiral of decline.

Iphone arrives 2007 — first time you have proper internet in your pocket — same as you get on your computer — the internet goes mobile.

For a while physical sales of music boomed from this extra marketing and reach to consumer — then napster came along, and showed that the music could be distributed for free — iTunes created a legal alternative and gave the world a 79p download to an ipod, knocking 80% off a £3.99 single sale — now Apple was in charge of the future of the music industry.

In 2007 itunes came to the iphone — like the sony walkman before it, this changed the game — white headphones became cool, itunes became the worlds record shop.

Then came Spotify (founded in 2006)…. who’s growth has been vertical — we move to a subscription model, because who wants to pay 79p a song, how about free music with ads (like the radio) or no ads, 9.99 a month —

then came the video game companies, who have all the teenagers in their virtual social game networks, and they sell them rock and roll… digital gig tickets, digital skins and get all the user data! all of it.

The shift?

Here is the paradim shift in social media — the biggest platform in the world is Facebook with over 3 billion people on it — yet Facebook is not popular with Generation Z — I mean, who wants to hang out where your parents hang out, because the virtual world is a mirror to the real world — also Facebook is not very customizable, its blue and white pages with content inside a bulletin board system is honed to collect data, every post is a data entry into your personal log — its a spreadsheet and kinda looks like one — but millennials, Gen x, Boomers, they are the Facebook audience, easy to use hassle free interface, all their friends are there, its the same each time the app is opened.. nothing can be further from the truth for fortnite as a social network — you gather your squad and take part in games to eliminate other squads, and you know a shit ton of things about these people your fighting as they all have multiple social media handles on multiple platforms, you can also speak via headset and you can customize your avatar and have an identity inside the space, your rank is by your score and your followers, not just your followers or connections — Roblox is an even bigger social network that Fortnite, as you can earn currency by servicing the network and carrying out tasks, these in-game credits can be spent in-game on items to show your wealth and support your creativity — this in turn raises your profile and makes your identity more widespread and known — place this next to instagram, where the number of followers denotes your social standing, because you can do pictures which gain following — Roblox you have to participate, play, do tasks, code and be part of a genuine community to get a break — and its this genuine community, that the music industry is keying into.

Music and Innovation

The music industry is a slightly different, the innovation means that gate keepers can change and old gate keepers cease to exist, we went from Cassette to CD, CD to streaming — now we are going streaming to Video game spaces…. same music, different owner.

therefore the lucrative recordings by the musical artists can be sold on and then re-sold within the next technological innovation — to give an example, i know that my dad has some original Beatles records, but then in the 90s purchased his entire music collection on CD and getting rid of the records, then with itunes, he uploaded his CDs to his computer and the RMS gave him access to the itunes cloud, he could download to his ipod, he got rid of the CDs — as soon as music got digital, recording companies whom sold a physical product ceased to be able to sell a physical product, as the product was now digital and they were not in this space ,

my dad got napster, and now he could afford to listen to all the music he wanted to buy, but could not afford, so besides the beatles, he was now able to listen to every Who song ever recorded — of course my dad felt guilty with this piracy and so when the next technological innovation came along, my dad was right on it, and got himself a Spotify account and apple music pass and amazon music, the last two he got for free as he was using there products, all the worlds music as a free gift!!!! — now my dad could listen to unlimited music — but he only knew what he knew — mainly 60s rock… the next innovation was social graphs and recommendations based on the data in his profile and also people like him..

so my dad has been nudged by Spotify to consider other types of music? why is this, because Spotify wants my dad to have a great time with music, maybe, but instead of my dad being a consumer of just 60s rock, he got nudged enough and is now a consumer of 90s hip hop and country music — this data is then sold on to 3 types of marketer, the 60s rock promoter, the 90s hip hop promotor and the country music record label — my dad now see’s ads on Facebook for holidays to nashville, tickets to see the Who and movies about 90s hip hop idols — and his favourite music tracks,… he has purchased special editions on vinyl because he saw it on a facebook ad and youtube video!

over this 30 year period, the music tracks have not really changed for my dad, he has discovered music he didn't know about, but because its in the cloud, that track is freely accessible to everyone on the planet, as long as you have a subscription to Spotify at 9.99 a month or a £120 a year — or in a 30 year period £3600 — so the music business has become a subscription model, you subscribe to listen to someone else's record collection, but only one copy need to exist as data allows unlimited listens to the data, as its freely streamed via server farms, that serve data, and you own nothing, just the right to listen, whilst at the same time, you give up your data, and as music listening and preference data is one of the best forms of data for a social graph my dad is more valuable to Spotify, than his subscription.

But Generation Z does not just want to just listen, they want to participate as a fan (Jenkins fan culture), they want to consume with others, they want to do it with their digital native tribe, so both online and offline (RR) — they want to interact and play globally with their music, they don’t just want an old fashioned subscription model to all the music (Spotify) — they want to hang out — the new shopping mall hangout are spaces like fortnite and roblox, therefore if brands and companies are going to capture this market and sell any products to them, then they need to grab their attention — that's where music comes in — its has the ability to draw people together to listen and dance, whilst also creating identity by having a front person, or star as the music's focus — music has idols — once we know who the idol is in music — a tribe or fan group will grow around that idol — the difference being on a social graph — the idol becomes the largest spot on the map, in essence it becomes the sun, with an entire industry revolving around it — so looking at the music industry as a star map, a guide to the universe, which has a visual layer, but is underpinned by data to create that visual layer — this is the music business of 2022.

and the idols might start off as real human music stars, but to participate in the in game worlds of Fortnite and Roblox, then they are turned in digital avatars — this move is very important, as this means that music star is part of the tribe as it looks like it fits in there — having a virtual idol / avatar also created more chance for spectacle and immersive experience's within the game world, and not just stream a 2D video of the performance into the world (which I have also attend)

‘You fish where the fishes are’ so if a billion kids are playing fortnite and you want their attention, turn your music idol into a video game character and get them to ‘perform’ using available technology in this world (which is now very cheap and the game engines to create this are now free! unreal engine and unity — mo caps suits are just £3000 and you can track your face with an iphone and free software — therefore the abilty to create video game popstars can be done in the bedroom

— create a FOMO event and amplify the FOMO on social media, and because every Gen z’r is infact a small micro business of data and influence, everytime they tweet, post or share something about the event, its amplyfied by the amount of reach and influence they have — this influence can be purchased from social media companies as sponsored posts or ads and be targeted to people on those platforms which closely match the musical experience you are offering.

The audience have all become mini media companies as a by-product of participating in the digital space, where social media is how we connect (because who e-mails to have a conversation)

The most important thing about this mass participation events in Fortnite and Roblox and Lost Horizon is they are free to attend, therefore the only barrier to entry is the technology to access the event — and by simply logging this hardware to the internet, the social media companies know what devices you own — and so can geo target adverts for music FOMO events to only people with the technology to access them.

In the old days you owned a record player — all that did was play a spinning disk and music came out — now if you own a PlayStation, you can go to gigs inside it, and play music which is interactive, you can download and you can access all the apps like youtube, spotify etc — whilst also chatting with your headset on, to like minds from your tribe 24/7….. the evolution of the record player~!

Tik Tok has changed this paradigm somewhat again, music is being consumed on a social media platform, much in the same way that music is consumed in fortnite or roblox, and was the missed opportunity that spotify could have had , and facebook try to get into this market, but there core demographic that make them all that lovely advertising money is now to old—

Tik Tok is created by Bytedance a Chinese owned firm (this could be a rabbit hole, especially with my final summary)

Tik Tok uses videos of dance put to music as a means for communication, its one of the most popular uses of the app — we should look at the role of DANCE as a means of communication for humans — which probably comes down to showing off to find a mate etc (obviously more research needed) — this DANCE was also how fortnite crossed over into the mainstream in 2017?? as dances from the game where replicated by fans on youtube and in RR (Floss dance) — so there is a something with dance, expression and music which is being co-opted by social media platforms — follow the dance videos follow the money — these dance videos can be real RR people like in tik tok and instagram or virtual avatars in fortnite and roblox worlds.

4 — Digital Identity — How do Generation Z represent themselves online and how does this affect how they consume content

There are three key area’s to explore here, and each area is a potential area of study, which could create a thesis in it’s self — I will aim to write 5000 words on each sub heading.

The three subheadings that I propose are to look and explain and give examples of how music relates to Avatars, Platforms or space and Community.

By giving the reader this information I hope that.

When I talk about Avatars, I am talking about how we as humans represent ourselves in a digital space — in the Bulletin board systems days (BBS) identity would mainly be via a persons BBS name — or BBS handle — this could be something like ‘Dragon Slayer 1980’ or ‘Tiny Rebel’ or something that would not traditonnlay be used in the everyday IRL — but over time, these personanas would gain traction in a community, and carve a niche within the space — real names on the internet where not the norm, it was only when Facebook came along, and the tech giants that using your real world identity on the internet became mainstream — the main reason for this is two fold, your data can be assigned and clearly labelled to a real human name, and it stops fraud — by stopping fraud, the data becomes even more valuable, as each data node on a social graph network is a real person and not a Bot.

Its very likely that your passport and birth certificate will be linked to an absolute mine of social media and internet usage data — i think this is what goes off in China —

Bot accountants do exist, one individual in charge of 100s of accounts — this is how mis-information is spread in the digital age.

So if we are moving towards our representation online going beyond a 2d jpeg of our face, or something that represents us and a name — to a fully realised 3D character, with digital data attached

I need to give historical insight into the development of digital avatars to represent humans online, whilst also highlighting how mask’s are used in theatre and ritual across the millenia — because there is a human need at work here — are they our fundamental human rights? do we even have any anymore?

Back to the 21st century what will your avatar be like and how will we identify with it, and why is it important to understand this — and with this, how will we interact with the platforms and how will we consume media — Richard A Bartle is a foundation researcher with plenty of text on the subject.

Bringing this back to music, how will your avatar dress, what will they look like, and how will music influence this — there is already plenty of research that couples music with fashion, or music, fashion and politics, so what do we think the music conscious avatar is going to be like and what examples do we that we can look at — here i will look at representation in Fortnite and how Avatars and music are coupled together and how music is consumed at virtual gigs, while selling digital skins for $29.99 which match the concert you are going to — and how this business will likely evolve as NFT technology and crypto currency becomes more mainstream and legislated by governments — I can compare and contrast the virtual gig going experience of Fortnite with that of both roblox and Lost Horizon — I have attended gigs in all 3 so perhaps here I should use a netnography methodology to demonstrate to the reader what I mean — coupled with input from the literature.

We have discussed how your Avatar will be at virtual music gigs — but why are musical artists like Ara Grande and Travis scott turning themselves into virtual avatars — what is the business case here and what are the results — what are the revenues and how will this change consumption of music content — here we could see if this is being led by the demand of avatars created by people looking for something to do, or is it driven by the music industry which then creates fan avatars, or is there a sweet spot? explore this?

a) Avatars

  • Foundation Text Richard A Bartle ‘ How to be a God’ (2022)

b) Platforms

Its really important to understand the platforms that these musical gigs take place on — so part of this sub chapter will be introducing the reader to the platform — I will also focus on 3 platforms, Fortnite, Lost Horizon and Roblox, I will mention Meta’s Horizon, but its not available in the UK just yet.

The platforms can be seen as the hardware to the avatar as data and software, I will mention the metaverse — but for a true metaverse to exist, then interopibilty must exists, the abilty to port an avatar from Fortnite to Roblox as if both games lived in the same universe — so here I can explain the difference between Metaverse spaces like ‘Sandbox’, Decentraland’ and percieved metaverse spaces like Fortnite, Roblox and Lost Horizon — we have currently social media spaces, mainly 2D web 2.0 spaces and we are evolving into video game community sand boxes, which I would include Fortnite, Roblox and Lost Horizon in, and we have pioneering community owned space like sandbox (yes that's the company name) and decentral land.

Social media platforms are also key to drive traffic, i.e us and our data to sandbox and metaverse spaces — Gen z’s choice of social media is Tik Tok, Instagram, Youtube and to some extent twitter — with bulletin boards coming back in vogue via discord — and discord as a social media enables hyper connectivity which builds community.

What needs to be clear is that for Sandboxes or Metaverses to exist, they need users, and these users are found on social networks, Tik Tok, Facebook, Instagram, — but….. THESE TWO CAMPS are about to go to WAR… Facebook fired the first shot by saying it will be both social media and a game world — and Microsoft who owns no social media, and a game world in Minecraft, purchased Activision, because games like call of duty, are a social networking game with a huge community — Microsoft almost purchased Tik Tok in 2021 as the Trump administration said Tik Tok needed to be American owned to play in the USA….

Spotify is also going to get a mention here, as they started out as a streaming site for music, but they are slowly enabling both artists and consumers to use social media type functions on the site, so instead of using spotify as a link to music outside of a social media site, for example, an instagram post with a URL to a spotify artists or song — spotify wants you to interact inside the app and share url and links inside their eco system — the issue here, is that is not how users use the site, coupled with listeners will listen to music on a speaker or voice assistant and therefore maybe never interact with the screen, these barriers mean mass adoption and social media sign ups in the Billions enjoyed by facebook, tik tok and Youtube, will not happen inside spotify — therefore spotifys role in all this is limited, but plays a part — and i think this is the most important aspect of understanding the role of platforms — i guess they act as nodes on a new lifestyle network, or in this case a musical network — the days of radio air play to break a band have gone and MTV music television does not have the impact it had at its height in the 80/90/00 , I mean which Generation Z watch TV?— now its the case of how many links to nodes on a social graph a band has, which will deem them a commercial success — this is why we have influencer culture on platforms such as instagram and youtube who drive audience to musicians.

I have been doing pro bono work for scruff of the neck records in Manchester and have full access to their dashboards which explain in great detail how all the above works via data and graphs — as they have a tool that plugs into social media networks and reports it into a visual dashboard, which also plugs into spotify and youtube to see how audiences are interacting with an artist — the next step is to use this tool to anylise virtual gigs and spaces, and allow audiences with more access to content in game worlds — be it sandbox or metaverse spaces.

c) Community

What are the rules of a successful digital community, but if the virtual world mirrors the RR, then what makes a successful community, sociology will have the answer in the books!

Humans are social animals, and social media platforms key into this basic human need, which is why the endorphine boosts we get on the platforms is so addictive and why we can’t leave — leaving social media, as anyone who has been blocked up banned for a short space of time, is devistating — why is this?

You go onto platforms or join games, because your friend is there, or you are looking for a new tribe / friends — when Facebook launched it did so on University Campuses across the USA — this meant that it would be shared amongst friends who invited you to join — referral marketing is the most efficient form of digital marketing — aka ‘word of mouth’.

Social means community, and community can mean so many different things, for the sake of time, we will focus on the role of music as a community glue and the tribal affects of music, culture and people — I will look at Punks, and demonstrate research on social networks and nodes on this movement, and compare them with data we have for EDM music — the music is different, but I want to demonstrate how we measure and look at community, there is the sociological side to it, fashion, people, stories, and then we have the data, the nodes on the network and how understanding community through a social graph means that as an industry, the music industry can use persuasive technology to change what people think and do — if you like this, you will like this — can’t get to the gig, watch the live stream, try the VR experience, come to the virtual video game gig — we know you missed it, as we know where you are (geo tag) so click here and immerse yourself.

d) Case study interviews

To bring the 3 points of Avatar, Platforms and Community together I want to showcase a case study, in the form of several interviews with Generation Z, UNDER 10S with their parents as the intervierwer, under 18s with their consent and under 25s — I will devise the questions to collect data to test my written research / hypothosis, or I might do this case study bit first and then write about it, backing up what I have discovered.

5 — What technology is disrupting the music industry — Understanding the role of social graphs and algorithms in social media, and how this affects consumption behaviour

  • Foundation Text — ‘Persuasive Technology — using computers to change what we think and do by B.J Fogg

Why is the relationship between music and social media, and therefore video game virtual spaces like sandboxes and metaverse important — what research has been done, why is marketing the driving force, and how valuable is the data — and so why are different industries which tradionally had nothing to do with the music industry now getting involved.

6 — Video games have become social media platforms (Roblox), and social media platforms are becoming video games (META) a study into this paradigm shift

By understanding the above title, we will see how owning players data with their behaviour (bartle test) — whilst also owning their avatar and identity — well this means more ownership for a select few.. case in point Microsoft now own Minecraft and Activison — they failed to get discord and Tik Tok… Meta (Facebook) owns instagram, whatsapp, facebook, Oculus — Beat Sabre etc….

7 — A netnographical exploration of participation in virtual music events on these parddigm shiffting spaces, dancing head first into web3.0 and why you become the product and its you we have come to see.

This bit is to show that the theory described in the past few chapters, produces a product, the 3 key points are experiences as product — the immersive experience based economy — but instead of heading out to a RR location, this industry is thriving on screens and inside headsets. (Accelerated by the pandemic, just look at the share prices in these companies during this period and the revenues)

We have come to see you, your data and your network links is what we want, we want you to share what we are showing you, and by doing so, more of you will come, they in-turn will share, and invite and like, and before you know it, those outside of this world will know what we are doing and they will visit, once inside this world they will join us.. by joining us they will take on one of 4 roles

According to a research study, there are four categories of social media users: Professionals, Sharers, Creators and Bonders. (Need to define this properly) how does this relate to Bartles (Socialiser, Explorer, Achiever and Killer) (Bartle test)

Can we test out the above and use netnography to further understand these types and the relationship to music

Here I will discuss 4 key points to give the reader an understanding of 4different ‘immersive type products / or vantage points into the industry and create an environment for future researchers to go look at un-answered questions.

  • I will talk about going out on a weekend as a virtual avatar to various gigs and spaces using Netnography methodology from the view point of the consumer (Sharers and Bonders)
  • I will DJ as an avatar in a vitual space and use Netnography methodlogy to document this as a creator in the space (Creators)
  • I will put on a musical event on inside the virtual space which will enable me to understand the commercial aspects of this, again using netnography methodolgy to report my findings. (I will use NFTs here) (Professionals — do this every weekend as a main source of income insight)

By understanding the 4 social media types and then merging them with the Bartle test, have we created a new framework for the music industry to understand Generation Z digital natives within the framework of the social graph driven music industry?

and does this answer my question?

How has the emergence of XR technology in the music industry affected how a Generation Z audience consumes a musical artists work?

7 — Summary

We now understand that recorded music has always been a product producing business — from the patent owners like Edison, to the 21st century gate keepers of Spotify and Apple to the new players, the video game industry which has morphed into a hybrid space part video game, part social media space

Gamerfication of our entire lives as entertainment, and music and therefore the music industry is the one of many basic human needs, music allows us to socialise, it allows expression via dance, fashion , identity — politics, sexuality .. music is not just the audible listening experience, it also contains a meta-layer (very apt) of information about the listener, audience memember.

As soon as someone becomes a partcipants on social media they move from passive to active (Jenkins), active data points give off more data, therefore music is being used to stimulate the social graph and in the age when video games become social media and social media becomes video games, the more stimulation by active nodes on the network, the more persuasive control can be attributed to that node — using computers to change what we think and so.

Music is turned against us to sell more product — by understanding what we buy and what we listen to, they understand us — they own us.

the early 21st century saw unfriending becoming a thing, FOMO (Fear of missing out) by seeing your friends ‘perfect lives’ on instagram — now will you stop listening to your favorite music, stop following that music idol.

The pied piper has brought the lambs to the market— to the data market, where data is worth more than oil….. where bitcoin is worth more than gold..

The non fungiable is worth more than the fungiable

where the metaverse is worth more than the real world

We danced our way here…

….. Fuck!

Mark Ashmore 19/1/22

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Mark Ashmore

Mark Ashmore

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Mark Ashmore is a Ph.D Researcher at LJMU and founder of Future Artists - He writes about Computer Science, the Arts and Entertainment - He is also Dyslexic